History of coffee: Coffee consumption by country

KAPA REYNOLDS

If coffee is alongside cocoa, one of the most traded commodities in the world, it is also the most consumed drink after water. Today, nearly 75% of coffee production in exporting countries is destined for the world market. Some countries drink more than others. Let's detail them world coffee exports and consuming countries.

Coffee producing and exporting countries

Almost all of the world's coffee production is produced in the tropics and subtropics, and therefore for the most part in developing or underdeveloped countries. The export of green coffee constitutes an extremely important financial windfall for these countries whose cultivation and production are a huge vector of jobs.

The coffee economy constitutes a considerable stake since it would today support nearly 25 million people across the globe, mainly small producers. Its transformation and distribution would generate around 100 million jobs!

According to a study by theEuropean statistical institute Eurostat, in 2018, most coffees imported into Europe mainly come from two countries. Brazil remains the main exporter of coffee, with more than 900 tonnes imported (representing 000% of total coffee imports in Europe), although its share is declining in the face of competition from other countries such as Vietnam, which exported to Europe around 29 tonnes of green coffee ( i.e. 770%).

Other countries also follow, such as Honduras with 228 tonnes (000%), Colombia with 7 tonnes (173%), Uganda with 000 tonnes (6%), India with 161 tonnes ( 000%), Peru with 5 tonnes (157%) and Ethiopia with 000 tonnes (5%).

Coffee consumption by country in figures

If we know the pronounced taste of Italians for the traditional All espresso brewing methods, know that Italy is not the first coffee consuming country in the world, far from it! The inhabitants of the Netherlands beat the Italians and the French flatly with 8,3 kg of coffee swallowed per year, per capita according to a study on the average coffee consumption carried out by the Statista institute in 2020.

The Italians are thus ranked tenth, while the French are only fifteenth on the podium, almost tied with the United States. Mexicans, for their part, major coffee producers with 270 tons produced in 000, however consume only 2020 kilos each year!

Here are the results of the ranking in kilos, per capita in countries where consumption exceeds 3 kilos per year:

Coffee, a flagship fair trade product

Chosen as a symbol of fair trade, the cultivation of certified fair trade coffee allows through the establishment of networks of small farmers, improve the living conditions of several hundred thousand people to prevent them from plunging into poverty.

Buyers importing fair trade coffee undertake to buy the coffee beans at a fair price even if the purchase price and world prices are below the defined threshold. This better remuneration and stabilization of prices paid to cooperatives associated with a purchase guarantee for several years provide financial security to small producers.

Graph from Rainforest Alliance interactive that you can find in clicking on the following link

In addition to allowing producers to benefit up to double the price paid on traditional local markets, end consumers of fair trade coffee today guarantee the payment of development premiums intended to finance food programs, health care systems or education around the world.

Fair trade in coffee thus aims to establish fairer trade rules for everyone and reduce the impact of coffee production on the environment.

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Arabica or robusta: which coffee to choose?

KAPA REYNOLDS

Both from Africa, Arabica and Robusta are also the most popular and cultivated coffees in the world. But what are the differences between Arabica and Robusta? What is the best coffee? Kabioca reveals in detail the origins and flavors of these two species of coffee.

The difference between Arabica and Robusta

If their origins are common and both species of coffee come from Africa, Arabica coffee comes from the Ethiopian highlands, while the Robusta coffee grows in the Congolese forest, in Côte d'Ivoire and also in Uganda. Vietnam is also positioned today as the largest exporter of Robusta.

source: Wikiversity

Arabica coffee, rich in aromas

Arabica coffee comes from the most widespread species of coffee tree in the world, located as the name suggests, from the peninsula arabic. It is indeed, at Yemen that the first café would have seen the light of day and that Arabica would have been eaten and tasted for the first time. It exists today nearly 200 kinds of Arabica listed in different varieties such as Maragogype or Moka, themselves split into several types such as Djimmah, Sidamo or Harrar ...

Le coffee tree Arabica, native to Yemen, is a slender tree growing gently in the highlands, between 800 and 2000 meters above sea level on soils rich in minerals (essential elements for its remarkable aromas). Arabica coffee likes mild, humid and shady climates and fears harsh climatic zones. It definitely prefers mild temperatures, between 15 and 24 ° C. Cultivation of Arabica coffee trees requires a lot of humidity and shadow areas. It is for this reason that one often finds large trees in the middle of Arabica plantations in order to protect them from heat and sun, while maintaining a good level of humidity.

More fragile than Robusta, the Arabica tree produces coffee beans that are low in caffeine (between 1,2 to 1,5%). Its oval and elongated beans, red, purple or yellow in color, offer fine, varied and pronounced aromas.

So, less full-bodied than the aromas of Robusta, Arabica coffee brings great finesse in the mouth and more developed aromas that suit more coffee lovers. Arabica coffee also represents 2/3 of coffee production in the world!

The most famous varieties of Arabica coffee are: Bourbon coffee from Brazil, Middle East, India and Indonesia and also Typica coffee from Latin America, closely followed by Tico, Blue Mountain , the Mundo Novo, the Caturra and the San Ramon. 

TO KNOW : The top 5 Arabica coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Ethiopia and Guatemala.

Arabica or Robusta, which one to choose? 

Each type of coffee has its own aromas and character. Their flavors come from the climate, soil, altitude and how the grains have been dried and the way they were roasted by the roaster. So there really are differences between these two types of coffee and it is very difficult to know which is the best coffee. It all depends on your palate, your tastes and your caffeine needs.

If you feel like you want to take the French people tend to prefer Arabica for its aromas and finesse, Italians favor the power and intensity of a good espresso made with Robusta. 

Now that you know the difference between arabisa and Robusta, know that it is above all a matter of taste, but the main objective is to make you happy!

Discover our full range of Robusta and Arabica coffees. 

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History of coffee: coffee arrives in Europe

KAPA REYNOLDS

It has been a little over 4 centuries since coffee arrived on the European continent. If the consumption of these small grains has spread to the whole world and is now part of our daily life, it has not always been so. Let's discover together the origins of coffee in Europe.

Coffee and the Muslim world

After the discovery and cultivation of coffee trees in Yemen, the sultan of the Ottoman Empire who then reigned over a large part of the Mediterranean basin, Suleiman the Magnificent, undertook to domesticate the cultivation of coffee cherries and to control their roasting. The Ottoman people, in fact, regularly consumed coffee and the popularity of the nectar began to spread beyond its borders. 

It was in the 16th century that the first cafes emerged along the Mediterranean rim, the Middle East and neighboring regions of Mecca.. The introduction of coffee to the Islamic world, however, required a cultural consensus to determine whether the beverage was toxic or not and whether the beverage conformed to the Koran. 

Photo credit: museum Rijksmuseum

Driven by pilgrims and Muslim mystics and by the prohibition of alcohol, places of conviviality called " coffee houses »Gained more and more ground. Thereby, this drink called K'hawah met with great success in the Muslim world.

Introduction of coffee in Central Europe

Next, at the beginning of the 17th century, the Venetians, specialized in the spice trade between the East and Europe, imported coffee to Italy. Very popular in Venice, the coffee was still subject to controversy and some advisers of Pope Clement VIII asked him to ban it, declaring the drink unfaithful. Indeed, coffee beans, coming from Muslim countries were viewed with a negative eye by the various cardinals surrounding the pontiff. However, after tasting it, he finally decided to democratize his consumption et encouraged the monks to consume it. 

The oldest café in Europe, Café Florian located in Venice, Italy.
Photo Credit: Adobe Stock Photo

 

It was not until the end of the 17th century that England also began to import coffee, and English intellectuals met to discuss philosophy over coffee. From Cairo to Paris, via Constantinople, from many establishments dedicated to coffee opened like so many meeting places frequented by artists and intellectuals, like Montesquieu and Diderot.

Charles II, then King of England, took fright and declared the closure of these places where liberal ideas and pamphlets were shared between the various protesters of the time. However, in front of the people's mazarinade, the ban was quickly lifted, and so England counted 50 years later, nearly 2 cafes spread over the whole of British territory.

Arrival of coffee in France

The arrival of coffee in France, for its part, dates from 1644. Introduced from Egypt, in Marseille, thanks to a Marseille merchant, its consumption quickly democratized. And so was born, in 1671 the first public café offering coffee in the district of "La loge" of the Phocaean city. (now the stock exchange district, located between the Old Port and Belsunce).

A café in Montmartre in Paris during the 50s
Adobe Stock Photo Photo Credit

It was not until 1669 that the precious coffee beans arrived in the French capital. Paris did not experience its first roasted coffee beans until after the visit of Solimane Aga, emissary of Mehmed IV, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. The latter, despite the failure of the attempted rapprochement between France and Turkey, offered King Louis XIV to taste the famous drink which had been spreading for several years in the various European courts.

Cheaper than chocolate, coffee will definitely be adopted by all social strata in the 19th century and the cup of black coffee, in the morning, will stand out as a classic, replacing the traditional soup.

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History of coffee: the birth of the first coffees

KAPA REYNOLDS

Every morning millions of people start their day with a cup of coffee, but do you know the story behind this globally consumed drink? Discover the mysterious and legendary history of the most consumed drink in the world after water.

The master of the Sufis Ali ben Omar al-Shadili in Ethiopia

There are different stories relating to the discovery of coffee. The first legend suggests that the true origin of the coffee cherry would come from Ethiopia, in the region of Kaffa. The master of the mystical order of the Sufis, Ali ben Omar al-Shadili, also nicknamed the "saint of Moka" would indeed have found berries during an exile in the desert. He would one day have offered a drink made up of coffee cherries infused in hot water, to the captain of an Indian ship. The latter would then have appreciated the flavor of the coffee.

The story also goes that the Yemenis would have taken Ethiopian coffee plants in the 12th century, to carry out a roasted coffee trade in the Harrar, a veritable market place and historical center of the development of Islam.

The Khaldi shepherd and his goats in Yemen

Coffee farm in Yemen

If the real origins of the first coffee are unknown, another legend also feeds popular beliefs. It is that of the Kahldi shepherd of Abyssinia in the 8th century. The story goes that the first coffee was arguably grown in Yemen after being discovered by a shepherd who used to graze his goats in the Jebel Sabor, in the highlands of Yemen.

It was then that he noticed one day that his animals seemed much more lively than usual, that they were frolicking and jumping everywhere, day and night. After observing them for several days, he noticed that they were feasting on small red berries that looked like cherries. These came from a shrub: the coffee tree.

Intrigued, the shepherd then made the decision to bring his famous treasure back to the monastery of Cheodet to tell the monks of the city about his remarkable discovery. The monks decided to boil the cherries from the coffee tree in water to drink the beverage.

Some time later, the monks Sciadli and Aydrus, in charge of the harvest of coffee kernels were surprised by the rain and placed the damp coffee branches in the hearth of the fireplace to dry them during prayer. When they returned, the roasted cherry pits had spread a delicious smell in the room. The monks decided to reduce the cherries to powder before infusing them in hot water. And that's how the first would be born roasted coffee.

Coffee has a somewhat vague origin

A coffee tree and its fruit

The history of the origin of coffee remains relatively unclear even if everything suggests that it is in Ethiopia that the first coffee plant was born in 850 AD, Koffea Arabica.

As in all legends, we will surely never know what the true origin of the coffee cherry is. Some see the root and origin of the word coffee in Kaffa, name of a historical region in Ethiopia, others in qahwa (wine in Arabic) or even in ka et afa (contraction of "God" and "plants of the earth").

If it is difficult to know which is the most authentic story and to precisely locate its origin, that caffeine drink nonetheless remains the most consumed with nearly 400 billion cups of coffee drunk each year, that's over 1 coffees every second across the world!

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